Emergence of the ABC Transporter Antibiotic Resistant Gene in Pathogenic Fungi Using In Silico Analysis

Keywords: ABC transporters, multi-drug resistance, Dermatophytes, Pleiotropic drug resistance, Drug efflux, Prokaryotes, Aspergillus versicolor.


Adenosine triphosphate binding cassette proteins (ATP-ABC) transporters belong to a broad superfamily of proteins in all living organisms that have essential physiological functions. They are necessary for transporting a wide range of substrates across lipid membranes. ABC transport proteins share two conserved domain architectures: the multiple transmembrane helices (TMD) nucleotide binding protein domain (NBD). Fungi have evolved active transport pathways through endogenous and exogenous toxicants. Drug efflux from ABC transporters lowers the concentration of intracellular drugs, in many pathogens and cancer cells; therefore, efflux is subjected to extensive studies in pathogens. ABC transporter gene of aspergillus versicolor as reference and evaluated metadata of ABC transporter gene in comparison from dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte fungi using fungi DB and NCBI databases. ABC transporters gene was studied using gene homology via phylogenetic analysis. Study evaluated ABC transporters sub families, number of transcripts, exon, intron numbers sizes and position using gene sequence analysis by NCBI. The evolutionary history of ABC gene analyzed by using 12 proteins of both dermatophytes. Study also explored the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) homology in dermatophytes using the NCBI SNP tool. ABC protein examined five sub-families which include ABC-B, ABC-C, ABC-D, ABC-F. Phylogenetic studies on ABC transporter genes showed its emergence in three major groups of dermatophytes and non- dermatophyte. Exon number of ABC transporter gene varies from 2 to 18 and one transcript number in dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes. The evolutionary history of ABC-B was analyzed by using 12 proteins of both dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes. ABC genes in dermatophytes were found in five subfamilies ABC-B, ABC-C, ABC-D, ABC-F and ABC-G. However, ABC transporter gene family survey suggested that ABC- C family is a highly emerged sub family in dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes. Study revealed that ABC protein has been found in five sub-families of ABC transporter gene in dermatophytes. It has one transcript number in dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes. Whereas, the exon numbers are varied from 2 to 18. Moreover, ABC transporter gene phylogenetic family survey suggested that ABC- C family is highly emerged in both fungal types.