Recent Advances in Dairy Animal Breeding and Reproduction: A Review
This review has highlighted the transformative impact of recent technologies on dairy animal breeding and reproduction. Recent advances in the breeding and reproduction of dairy cows involve the integration of molecular genetics, cytogenetics, and reproductive biology into animal breeding practices. This integration of precision technologies has played a critical role in increasing the efficiency and productivity of breeding programs. The development of modern genetic technologies, such as genome mapping, marker-assisted selection, and transgenesis, has revolutionized the identification of superior genetic traits, contributing to accelerated genetic progress in dairy herds. Furthermore, advancements in reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, sperm sexing, and synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows, have supported the optimization of breeding strategies and facilitated improvements in economically important traits in livestock. Efforts have also been directed toward advancing the early detection of estrus stress in dairy cows using sensitive physiological indicators and sensor technologies, aiming to enhance decision-making in estrus management on dairy farms. In conclusion, recent improvements in the breeding and reproduction of dairy animals have demonstrated significant potential for enhancing reproductive efficiency, profitability, and the quality of milk and milk products. However, these technologies face limited applicability in developing countries due to challenges such as poor infrastructure, low costs, or a lack of human resources. Therefore, it is imperative to develop cost-effective technologies tailored to local and regional contexts, subsequently facilitating their broad dissemination within these regions.
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