Ethological Observations on Some Birds of Chashma Barrage

  • Verdah Manzoor
  • Z.B. Mirza
Keywords: Ethology, Habitat, Flyway, Ecological setup, Wildlife Sanctuary


This paper records the learned and innate behavior of some birds, local as well as migratory, at the left marginal water reservoirs of Chashma Barrage on river Indus, Punjab. The study includes ethological observations on some birds in relation to the habitat conditions of the Chashma Barrage, in five field trips of 3 to 4 days each, in mid-winter and spring 2013 and 2014. The performance of specific behaviours i.e. appetitive behaviour, anonymous association, consummatory behaviour, eco-ethology, escape behaviour and roosting behaviour was inter-related to the state of the habitats of the study area. The Chashma Barrage is the first main staging area of the winter migrant birds on the Indus Flyway, due to its huge water reservoirs. There are also large areas of shallow water ponds having luxuriant marginal growth and floating flora which provide breeding as well as wintering habitat for the local birds. Seventy two (72) bird species were observed at the Chashma Barrage during the study period. Out of these, 49 species were studied in some detail. Most of the local dryland species live in association with humans, in various ways for feeding and breeding in urban, as well as in rural environment.