Prevalence of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Usage among Pakistani Athletes and Its Psychological/ Legal Consequences

  • Basharat Hussain
  • Muhammad Tahir Khalily
  • Aziz Ur Rehman
  • Mujeeb Masud
  • Kehkashan Arouj
Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroid, anger, athletes, bodybuilders


This study was conducted to investigate anger and hostility among anabolic androgenic steroid user athletes. The subjects included 60 AAS users and similar numbers were used to control. All subjects were assessed with the short version of Novaco anger inventory and Hostility scale (a subscale of Symptoms check list-90). AAS users scored high on anger (M = 69.06, SD =18.19) as compared to non-users (M = 30.20, SD = 1.91) and the difference was significant [t (118) =38.86, p <.000]. AAS users also showed high score on hostility (M = 7.70, SD =2.68) as compared to non-users (M = 6.26, SD = .78) and the difference was significant [t (118) =1.44, p <.000]. Bodybuilders (49.8%) were found the most vulnerable to AAS usage. Findings suggest that testosterone (58.4%) is the most commonly used steroid among athletes. Additionally, a significant proportion (53.3%) of athletes had used AAS on their friend’s suggestion and injection was found to be a popular way of drug administration among the users. Findings also indicate that AAS is becoming popular drug among the athletes in e enhancing their performance. It was explored that it is creating different psychological problems in general and anger and hostility in particular. Furthermore, there is a dire need to establish government policy regarding its supply and demand reduction.