Prevalence, Biochemical Characteristics and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria in Poultry Litter
The quality, quantity and management of litter affects the growth and performance of broiler. It also has been reported to acts as a reservoir of microbes that may infect, reinfect, mutate and may cause disease therefore this study was designed for analysis of prevalence, biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibly of microbes isolated from different poultry litters used in Sindh province of Pakistan. A total of (n) =66 litter samples including rice husk (33), wooden bran (21) and sand (12) were collected from different broiler farms. The prevalence of bacteria were recorded as 36(54.54%) samples were positive with rice husk 20(60.60%), wooden bran 10(47.61%) and sand 6 (50.00%).The isolated bacteria were identified as E. coli in 9(45.0%) samples, followed by L.monocytogenin 3(15.0%), S. arizonaein 3(15.0%), S. aureusin 3(15.0) and P.aeroginosain 2(10.0%) samples collected from rice husk litter. Similarly, E. coliin 4(40.0%) samples, S.arizonaein 3(30.0%), S. aureusin 3(30.0%) and P.aeroginosa1(10.0%) were isolated from wooden bran, respectively. However, from sand litter only E. coliin5(83.33%) samples and S.arizonaein 1(16.67%) samples were isolated.
The morphological characteristics show that E. coliwere observed as cocco-bacilli, short rods & straight rods, arranged either singly or in pairs, non-motile and gram negative. Similarly, L. monocytogeneswere coccoid rods, arranged singly & in short chains, motile and gram positive. P. aeruginosa were found in short to long cylinder or singly curved rods, arranged in pairs and short chains, motile and gram negative. Similarly, S. arizonaewere observed as rod to cocco bacilli shape, arranged single, pairs, tetrads, short curved chains & in few clusters, G -ve. However, the shape of S. aureus was round and grape like structure, arranged as in pairs, tetrads, short & irregular clusters, non-motile and gram positive.
Biochemical analysis revealed that E. coli, L. monocytogen, S. arizonae and S. aureus were urease negative, catalase positive, produced acidic slant and acidic butt whereas P. aeroginosa was urease and catalase positive and produced alkaline slant and butt. Sugar fermentation indicated that E. coli, L. monocytogen, P. aeroginosa, S. arizonae and S. aureus was ferment glucose, mannitol and mannose but failed to ferment dulcitol except S.aureus. Antibiotic sensitivity test shows that E. coli and L. monocytogenwere highly sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamycin, P. aeruginosa and S.aureus was highly sensitive to sulphamethazole and tetracycline while S. arizonae were sensitive to ampicillin and neomycin. antibiotic sensitivity further revealed multiple drug resistant or moderate sensitivity of E. coli with amoxicillin and sulphamethaoxazole, S. arizonae were particularly resistant to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethaoxazole and tetracycline. Similarly, S. aurus were moderately sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and chloramphenicol.