Hepato-renal toxicity and hypertension induction by lead toxicity in battery smelter from district Hyderabad

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F. G. MEMON
Z. N. MUGHAL
J. A. ZAI
N. GILL
A. A. KHAND

Abstract

Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the long term toxic effect of lead on blood pressure, hepatic and renal functions in battery smelter from district Hyderabad.


Methods: A case-control study was conducted from August 2016-January 2017 at the Department of physiology University of Sindh, Jamshoro. We recruited 195 current battery smelter male workers and 200 healthy male as a control from different urban areas of District Hyderabad for this study. The physical parameter of each subjects (age, weight, height BMI and blood pressure) were assessed by standard protocols after taken written consent and their blood sample were taken for analysis of blood Lead, Cystatin C, AST, and ALT using atomic absorption, and standard diagnostic kits protocols respectively. The data were measure using SPSS as mean and SD.


Results: The study resulted in mean age of the subjects as 30.16±4.26 years, mean blood lead concentration 21.87±9.66 μg/dl, systolic and diastolic blood pressure 125.27±7.19, 104.36±7.97 mmHg respectively, Cystatin C 0.8552±0.1163 mg/L, ALT 28.28±10.89 IU/L and AST 26.57±11.63 IU/L. At low blood lead levels no correlation ship was found between blood lead blood and any of the biochemical markers but they sharply increased at concentration higher than 40 μg /dl.


Conclusion: A sharp rise in Cystatin C and drop in eGFR blood level at or above 40 μg /dl are suggestive of a renal damage and worst consequences associated with it. Therefore in occupational workers, blood lead levels must not cross the limit of 40 μg /dl and warrants clinical intervention. The efforts should also focus on monitoring blood lead levels of unexposed general population by introducing regular monitoring and control programs. Safer limits should be reinvestigated and clinical intervention done wherever necessary.

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