Main Article Content
Diabetes mellitus is the 4th leading cause of death worldwide. Diet-based approaches to treating various health disorders are considered safe, economical, and sustainable. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the methods used worldwide for the management of diabetes millets. The present study was designed to achieve the following objectives: to analyze bitter melon seed (BMS) and aloe vera gel (AVG) powder for proximate and mineral content; to develop functional chicken nuggets by using various concentrations of both powdered and their compositional analyses and to probe the antidiabetic potential of powders in synergy. A control and two formulations were selected, based on consumer acceptability, for efficacy trial through the animal model of 30 days. For this purpose, 18 diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. The groups included the positive control group (G0, normal diet) and two other groups with different AVG and BMS powder. G1 group received 50% BMS and 50% AVG powder whereas, G2 was fed on 75% BMS and 25% AVG powder per day. G1 showed a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, and uric acid, whereas the G2 showed improvement in insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, and triglycerides levels whereas showed better control over time. Supplementation of BMS and AVG can help to control hyperglycemia and related complications.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
2. Yaseen, G., M. Ahmad, M. Zafar, S. Sultana, S. Kayani, A.A. Cetto, and S. Shaheen, (2015). Traditional management of diabetes in Pakistan: ethnobotanical investigation from traditional health practitioners. J Ethnopharmacol, 147:91-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.07.041
3. Hussain, A. and I. Ali, (2016) Diabetes mellitus in Pakistan: a major public health concern. J Pharm Pract, 7(1):30-32. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA443 990951&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=fulltext&issn=2045080X&p=AONE&sw=w&casa_token=9TE6qu3b4igAAAAA:1C9CPQ
4. IDF (International Diabetes Federation) (2017) Diabetes Atlas, 8th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation.
5. Qayyum, M., K. Ashiq, S. Tanveer, M.A. Bajwa, A. Shah-Rukh, and N. Jahangir, (2020) Review on phytochemical evaluation and extraction of Nigella sativa (Kalongi) with pharmacological and traditional applications. Int J Biosci, 18;16(3):231-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-016-0877-y
6. Jaiswal, K., C. Bajait, S. Pimpalkhute, S. Sontakke, G. Dakhale, and A. Magdum, (2015). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a patient’s perspective. Int J Med Public Health, 5(2015):19-23. https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8598.151243
7. Jr, M. E., C. Kandaswami, and T. C. Theoharides, (2000) The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacol Rev, 52(4):673-751. Doi:0031-6997/00/5204-673$03.00/0
8. Modak, M., P. Dix, J. Londhe, S. Ghaskadbi and T.P.A. Devesagayam, (2007) Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 40(3):163-173. https://www.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.40.163
9. Alarcon-Aguilara, F. J., R. Roman-Ramos, S. Perez-Gutierrez, A. Aguilar-Contreras, C. C. Contreras-Weber and J. L. Flores-Saenz, (1998). Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics. J Ethnopharmacol, 61(2):101-110. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/s0378- 8741(98)00020-8
10. 10. Iqbal, M.S., M.Z. Iqbal, M.W. Iqbal, and M.B. Bahari, (2015) Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) among diabetes patients: a prospective study from Pakistan. Value Health, 18(7):620. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.2170
11. Ashiq, K., S. Tanveer, M. Qayyum, M. Bajwa, S. Ashiq, A. Shahzad, Z. Tariq, M. Faisal, N. Ahmad, A. Arsahd, and R. Sattar (2019) Common herbal plants and their role in control of obesity. Int J Biosci, 15(4):23-32. https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.4.23-32
12. Bangash, J. A., M. Arif, F. Khan, F. Khan, A. Rahman and I. Hussain, (2011) Proximate composition, minerals and vitamins content of selected vegetables grown in Peshawar. J Chem Soc Pak, 33(1):118-122. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Proximat e-Composition%2C-Minerals-and-Vitamins-ofin-BangashArif/8113e5cbd786b769a15550d27f1d9db81cd7cbbb.
13. Shukla, R., S. B. Sharma, D. Puri, K. M. Prabhu, and P. S. Murthy, (2000) Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Indian J Clin Biochem, 15(1):169-177. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/BF02867556
14. Grover, J. K., S. Yadav and V. Vat, (2002) Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol. 81(1):81-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00059-4
15. Hamed, S., H. E. Zohreh, and A. Soleiman, (2015) Effect of conventional and ohmic pasteurization on some bioactive components of aloe vera gel juice. Iran J Chem Chem Eng, 34(3):99-108. http://www.ijcce.ac.ir/article14756.html
16. Mukherjee, P. K., K. Maiti, K. Mukherjee and P. J. Houghton, (2006) Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. J Ethnopharmacol. 106(1):1-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.021
17. Rajasekaran, S., K. Sivagnanam and S. Subramanian, (2004) Hypoglycemic effect of aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. J Med Food. 7(1):61-66. https://www.doi.org/10.1089/109662004322984725
18. Rajasekaran, S., K. Ravi, K. Sivagnanam, and S. Subramanian, (2006) Beneficial effects of aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin diabetes. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 33(3):232-237. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04351.x.
19. Choudhary, M., A. Kochhar and J. Sangha, (2014) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Aloe vera L. in non-insulin dependent diabetics. J Food Sci Technol, 51:90-96, https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0459-0
20. Sathishsekar, D. and S. Subramanian, (2005) Beneficial effects of Momordica charantia seeds in the treatment of STZ-Induced diabetes in experimental rats. Biol Pharm Bull, 28(6):978-983. https://www.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.28.978
21. Palve, S. B., N. A. Kadam, and T. S. Kulkarni, (2015) Development, sensory and chemical attributes of the jelly made by incorporating aloe vera gel in pineapple juice. Int J Sci Res, 4(10):1094-1098. https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v4i10/SUB158953
22. AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists). 2000. Approved Methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th ed. St. Paul (MN) USA: AACC Press.
23. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), (2016) Association of Official Analysis Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 20th ed. Arlington (VA) USA: AOAC Press.
23. Bhosale, S. S., A. K. Biswas, J. Sahoo, M. K. Chatli, D. K. Sharma and S. S. Sikka, (2011) Quality evaluation of functional chicken nuggets incorporated with ground carrot and mashed sweet potato. Food Sci Tech Int, 17(3):233-237. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1082013210382339
24. Meilgaard, M., G. V. Civile and B. T. Carr, (2007). Sensory evaluation techniques, 4th ed. Florida, USA: CRC Press.
25. Ribeiro, R. T., W. W. Lautt, D. J. Legare, and M. P. Macedo, (2005) Insulin resistance induced by sucrose feeding in rats is due to an impairment of the hepatic parasympathetic nerves. Diabetologia, 48(5):976-983. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-005-1714-6
26. Montgomery, D. C., (2008) Design and analysis of experiments, 7th ed. John Hoboken (NJ) USA: Wiley & Sons. Inc.
27. Donya, A., N. Hettiarachchy, R. Liyanage, J. Lay, P. Chen and M. Jalaluddin, (2007) Effects of processing methods on the proximate composition and momordicosides K and L content of bitter melon vegetable. J Agric Food Chem, 55(14):5827-5833. Doi
28. Horax, R., N. Hettiarachchy, A. Kannan and P. Chen, (2010) Proximate composition and amino acid and mineral contents of Momordica charantia L. pericarp and seeds at different maturity stages. Food Chem, 122(2010):1111-1115.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.093
29. Mathew, T. J., M. M. Ndamitso, A. A. Otori, E. Y. Shaba, A. Inobeme, and A. Adamu, (2014) Proximate and mineral compositions of seeds of some conventional and non-conventional fruits in Niger State, Nigeria. Acad Res Int, 5(2):113-118. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Proximat e-and-Mineral-Compositions-of-Seeds-of-SomeMathewNdamitso/18064def402c54e6f694db46e9daf65e
30. Osuagwu, A. N., and H. O. Edeoga, (2014) Nutritional Properties of the Leaf, Seed, and Pericarp of the fruit of four cucurbitaceae Species from South- East Nigeria. IOSR-JAVS. 7(9):41-44. https://www.doi.org/10.9790/2380-07944144
31. Di Scala, K., A. Vega-Gálvez, K. Ah-Hen, Y. Nuñez-Mancilla, G. Tabilo-Munizaga, M. PérezWon, and C. Giovagnoli, (2013) Chemical and physical properties of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel stored after high hydrostatic pressure processing. Food Sci Technol Campinas, 33(1):52-59. https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612013000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso
32. Radha, M. H., and N. P. Laxmipriya, (2015). Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of aloe vera: a systematic review. J Tradit Complement Med, 5(1):21
33. Qiu, Q., F. Zhang, W. Zhu, J. Wu, and M. Liang, (2017) Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 177:53-63.
34. Maan, A. A., A. Nazir, M. K. I. Khan, T. Ahmad, R. Zai, M. Murid, and M. Abrar, (2018) The therapeutic properties and applications of aloe vera: a review. J Herbal Med, 12(2018):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2018.01.002
35. Bhat, Z. F., S. Kumar and P. Kumar, (2015) Effect of aloe vera on the lipid stability and storage quality of chicken nuggets. Nutri. Food Sci,45(1):1-20.https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/NFS-04-2014-0034/full/html#:~:text=Aloe%20vera%2Denriched%20nuggets%20showed,and%20yeast%20and%20mould%20count
36. Yogesh, K., T. Ahmad, G. Manpreet, K.Mangesh, and P. Das, (2013) Characteristics of chicken nuggets as affected by added fat and variable salt contents. J Food Sci Technol, 50(1):191-196.https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0617-z
37. Nkambo, W., N. G. Anyama and B. Onegi, (2013) In vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanolic fruit extract of Momordica charantia L. Afr Health Sci, 13(4):933-939.
38. Kang, S., X. Zhao, L. Yue, and L. Liu, (2016). Main anthraquinone components in aloe vera and their inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products. J Food Process Preserv, 16(1):1-9.https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13160
39. Helal, E. G. E., M. H. A. Hasan, A. M. Mustafa and A. Al-Kamel, (2003) Effect of aloe vera extract on some physiological parameters in diabetic albino rats. The Egyptian J Hospital Med, 12(e36):53-61.https://doi.org/10.12816/EJHM.2003.18245
40. Raman, A., and C. Lau, (1996) Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). Phytomedicine 2(4):349-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(96)80080-8
41. Ahmed, I., E. Adeghate, A. K. Sharma, D. J. Pallot and J. Singh, (1998) Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin- diabetic rats. Diabetets Res. Clini. Pract. 40(3):145-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-8227(98)00022-9
42. Srivastava, Y., H. Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, Y. Vermat, and K. Venkaiah, (1993) Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: An experimental and clinical evaluation. Phytother. Res. 7:285-289. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650070405
43. Dans, A. M. L., M. V. C. Villarruz, C. A. Jimeno, M. A. U. Javelosa, J. Chua, R. Bautista, and G.G.B. Velez, (2007) The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies. J Clin Epidemiol, 60(6):554-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.07.009
44. Devaraj, S., M. Yimam, L. A. Brownell, I. Jialal, S. Singh, and Q. Jia, (2013) Effects of aloe vera supplementation in subjects with prediabetes/metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 11(1):35-40. https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2012.0066
45. Alinejad-Mofrad, S., M. Foadoddini, S. A. Saadatjoo, and M. Shayesteh, (2015) Improvement of glucose and lipid profile status with aloe vera in pre-diabetic subjects: A randomized controlled trial. J Diabetes Metab Disord, 14:22-29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0137-2.
46. Nasiff, H. A., F. R. Fajardo, and F. Velez, (1993) Effect of aloe on hyperlipidemia in patients with negative response to diet. Revista Cubana de Med Gen Integral. 1993. 9:43-51.
47. Dixit, V. P. and S. Joshi (1983). Effect of Aloe barbedensis and clofibrate on serum lipids in triton induced hyper-lipidaemia in Presbytis monkeys. Indian J Med Res. 78:417-421. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6674162
48. Platel, K., K. S. Shurpalekar, and K. Srinivasan, (1993) Influence of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on growth and blood constituents in albino rats. Nahrung. 37(2):156-160. https://doi.org/10.1002/food.19930370210.
49. Umesh, C. S. Y., K. Moorthy, and N. Z. Baquer, (2005) Combined treatment of sodium orthovanadate and Momordica charantia fruit extract prevents alterations in lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 268(1):111-120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-005-3703-y.
50. Nerurkar, P. V., L. Pearson, J. T. Efird, K. Adeli, A. G. Theriault and V. R. Nerurkar, (2005) Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression and Apo B secretion are inhibited by bitter melon in HepG2 Cells. J Nutr, 135(4):702- 706. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.4.702.
51. El-Batran, S. A. E. S., S. E. El-Gengaihi, and O. A. El-Shabrawy, (2006) Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 108(2):236-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.015
52. Rajasekaran, S., K. Sivagnanam and S. Subramanian, (2005) Mineral contents of aloevera leaf gel and their role on streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 108(1):185-195. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1385/BTER:108:1-3:185