A Socio-Cultural Education and Training of Women in Glass Bangle Industry: Focused Area Hyderabad Pakistan

  • Dr. Aijaz Ali Wassan
  • Dr. Rafiq Chandio
  • Zohra Khatoon
Keywords: Bangles, Kanch ki Chodiyan, Entrepreneurs


Wearing of bangles is necessary for a married woman in Hindu communities in Pakistan. Bangles are considered as an important part of bride’s jewelry in all communities of Pakistan. In certain communities, there is a custom which says, that gold bangles should not be worn alone by married women and should be teamed with glass bangles popularly known as kaanch ki choodiya. In some communities women are so, superstitious even; they never allow changing bangles. A simple string or even the end of her sari is wrapped around the arm, until the new set is worn. In certain communities, widows are not allowed to wear glass bangles.

There are strong evidences shows, that women have been adorning; their arms with bangles since ancient times in the region. One of the oldest art objects in India, the bronze figurine of a dancing girl excavated at Mohenjo-Daro epitomizes the antiquity and the universality of wrist ornaments in the region. Ancient fragments testify that bangles were made from terracotta, stone, shell, copper, bronze, gold, silver, lac, glass and almost any material, that lent; itself to craftsmanship. From simple plain circlets of metal, to ones decorated with etched and exquisite designs of bird and animal-head terminals and studded with gems, bangles in various forms existed in ancient times.

This research work is on Women Entrepreneurs in Glass Bangle Industry: A Case Study of Hyderabad City &Latifabad SubDivision” Hyderabad, is considered as one of largest bangle Industrial city in Pakistan. The samples have been taken by two subdivisions: Hyderabad city and Latifabad, through purposive sampling method.