Issue of Language as the Medium of Instruction in Pakistan: An Analytical Study

  • Abdul Sattar Gopang
  • Abdul Hameed Panhwar
  • Ayaz Ahmed Chachar
  • Hyder Ali Nizamani
Keywords: Medium of Instruction


This research paper focuses on the medium of instruction that has been the burning issue not only in Pakistan but all around the world. This issue has remained unresolved in Pakistan due to overwhelming practice of other local and native languages in different provinces. The use of English as a medium of instruction in schools has given opportunity to a long debate

whether English is better verified than any of the native languages especially to build up the learner‟s comprehension level at secondary school level. The n = 68 public higher/secondary schools of Hyderabad District were taken as the sample. The two groups of the Class VIII students comprised 100 out of which 50 were from mother tongue and 50 were from non-mother tongue schools respectively. Simultaneously, 15 teachers from mother tongue and 15 from non-mother tongue schools were respectively selected for interview. Appropriate interview protocols were made to inspect the effect of the medium of instruction on cognition of learners. In this regard, 5 item semi-structured interview protocol in each was developed for teachers and students. Data were analyzed quantitatively. The results of the study demonstrated that students‟ cognition is better when taught in their mother tongue and they prefer to learn the subject in their respective mother tongues. This understanding of the subject enhances their cognition level as well. On the other hand, teachers also illustrated their preferences to teach in the mother tongue through which students have better learning and understanding. Finally, recommendations were provided for the improvement of the situation planning.