Relationship of Physical Fitness and Sports Participation with Self-Control in Visually Impaired Individuals

  • Dr. Asif Ali Assistant Professor, Department of Sports Sciences & Physical Education, The University of Haripur
  • Sarmad Hussain Special Education Department, Multan
  • Dr. Muhammad Azam Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education & Sports Sciences, Govt. College University, Lahore
Keywords: self-control, visually impaired individuals, physical activity, sports participation, socioeconomic status.


Self-control is considered to link with a wide range of adaptive behavior. This study aims to illustrate whether physical activity, physical fitness, and sports experience have some associations with self-control in individuals with visual impairment, and is there any difference between self-control among visually impaired athletes versus non-athletes. A total of 220 participants including 110 players and 110 non-players participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire consisted of demographic information, sports participa-tion, and experience-related questions (7-items-IPAQ), and a brief self-control scale. The analysis revealed that the score of the self-control scale was significantly higher in participants with playing experience comparative to those no playing experience. Sports experience and physical activity were positively related to self-control scores, whereas body mass index (BMI) and resting heart rate (RHR) of all participants were negatively related to self-control scores. Findings suggest that the ability of self-control can be enhanced through participation in sports and physical activity among visually impaired individuals. Professionals and policymakers should consider strategies to promote physical activity and sports participation in individuals with visual impairment to enhance positive personality traits.