Rites and Ceremonies: The Practice of Contemporary Sufi Orders & Sub-Orders in Sub Continent

  • Dr Farhat Naz Rahman
  • Fahmida Memon
  • Hafiz Abdul Ghani


Sufism is an Islamic mysticism, a path that emerged after the foundation of Islam in ?"' century A.D. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is the greatest master of all the Sufis of Ummah irrespective of their sects such as Hanafi, Shafai, Malaki, Hambali and Jafri. The companions specially the Ashaab-e-Sufah (companions of shade or mosque-rugs) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and first four blessed caliphs got directives about Sufism from Prophet Muhammad (SAW). The most important ceremonies related to Sufism are Dhikr and Sama. These serve as an individual's entry into a practice of teachings. Beside these two major rites or worship there are some other practices such as Haal and Maqam. (State and Station). These ceremonies varyfrom one Sufi order to another based on the different spiritual paths. This paper will discuss the brief description of the rituals and ceremonies performed by the Sufi orders and sub-orders in sub-continent. All four Sufi orders i.e. Naqshbandiya, Qadriya, Chishtiya, Suharwardiya will be taken into account. The purpose of the study is to argue that Sufi ritual performances motivate way of compassion and harmony for both secular and non-secular stratum. To assess the range of contemporary ceremonies is not possible to describe in this study however an attempt has been made to elaborate on the Muslim Sufi religious ceremonies in the socio-religious system of the sub­ continent. This would thus add to the recent debate related to the relations between societies and states that are represented and maintained in the sub-continent.