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During the reign of Turkhan ruler Mirza Jani Beg, Mughal emperor Akbar sent troops and annexed Sindh to his empire. Mughals governed Sindh through appointing Subedars (Governors) who did their worst to plunder Sindh as much as they could. Consequently, Socio-political and economic conditions of Sindh markedly deteriorated to such an extent that people turned against Mughal government. Various up-risings began. Mianwal Movement was one of such resistance movement led by a spiritual and religious leader Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro against Mughal rule of Sindh. It was known as Mianwal Movement that established from his village Hatri of Taluka Bakrani District Larkana. He formed Daira (a place for social interaction) where many indigent people were served with food and shelter and in return, they became staunch workers of his movement. Thus, an organized militant force emerged which fought various battles against emerging powers of the time in which three leaders along with many soldiers laid their lives. Subsequently, they movement succeeded to establish Kalhora government over Sindh which lasted from 1701 to 1783 AD.
The aim of this research paper is to analyze Mughal government and give detailed accounts of oppressions of Mughal Subedars of Sindh. This study also analyses the contribution of leaders and workers of Mianwal Movement who fought countless battles with Mughal forces.
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