Attribution among Students towards Their Success and Failure as a Learning Stimulus

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Kausar Perveen
Nosheen Raza
Maria Mustafa


This research paper explores the perceived causes of attribution about children’s success and failure in their education. The significance of the study strengthens learners to continue their learning process without dissonance. This is an exploratory as well as explanatory research to explore the role of attribution to enhance the learning abilities of students in the classroom through avoidance and repetitive behavior. The researchers have adopted a qualitative method of study. The universe of the present research was Karachi. The respondents were the students of the standard, VIII, and X. The age of subjects was 13-16 years. The sample size of the present research was 150 respondents. In the present study, the researchers have used an Intellectual Achievement, Responsibility Questionnaire (IARQ) developed by Crandall et. al (1965). The IARQ is composed of 34 forced-choice items which describe Carver & White (1994) BIS (I-) /BAS (I+) scales, The BIS (I-) /BAS (I+) scales a positive, BAS (I+) and negative, BIS (I-) achievement experience which routinely occurs in children’s lives. The whole scale was applied to maintain the validity of the scale except the filler questions. Scale is depicting 20 items to inquire deeply the behavior of students towards their success and failure as stimuli of learning behavior.

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