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This paper will examine whether gendered assumptions are embodied in population control policies, and if there are any resulting social justice concerns, specifically gender equality, women’s health. This process can be studied by using China as a case study because its nationalist rhetoric calls for state centered population control involving socioeconomic implications. The paper will first discuss gender as a tool of analysis set forth by the feminist perspective as a theoretical base, addressing “gendered assumptions” and explore whether population issues are gendered. By understanding population issue through the lens of gender, we can examine whether gendered assumptions were the basis of state-centered population control policy in China, and if this policy impacted society. China is also an interesting case study because its population control policy has been controversial within the international community, particulary those interested in human rights and social justice.