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Regarding the "governmental activity in the international sphere" Brian White once wrote that" ...states [are] agents of welfare as well as warfare". The post-World War-ll Japan can be considered as an "agent of welfare" which is promoting and projecting the cause of international peace and security. The country has committed herself to a pacific foreign policy with a belief that "war is unjustified and that all international politics should proceed by arbitration and treaties under international law". This commitment is also enshrined in Article Nine of the Peace Constitution of Japan which was framed in 1946 and came into effect the following year. All the post-Ward War II successive governments in Japan have avoided any military role or military participation in international politics.