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The pattern of educational development in the People's Republic of China has reflected the larger picture of national politics. It has been equally turbulent with its ups and downs, advance and retreats. The task of creating a new national system on the basis of a new ideology has under gone several major policy shifts. From 1949 to 1952, after 12 years of war, all out efforts were made to restore educational order, to organize schools on all levels, and to prepare the ground for fast expansion of educational facilities. Also during this initial phase all schools with foreign connections were taken over by the state and the old intellectuals were subjected to intensive thought remolding.