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The Indonesian archipelago is the world's largest insular complex including over 3,000 islands stretched across a distance of some 3,400 miles of ocean. The major islands are Java, Andalas or Summatra, Sulawesi or Celebes, and Kalimantan or Borneo. By population, Indonesia is the fifth largest country in the world. Approximately one hundred and twenty-eight million people live in the archipelago. Among them about 90 per cent of Indonesia's population are Muslim nation. This article focuses on the role of Islam in the politics of Indonesia.