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China today is one of the most populous country of the world. In the early days after the founding of Peoples Republic of China, the latent pressure of the population of China was gradually realised. At that time as the after effects of war the economy was being rehabilitated and democratic reforms were being affected. Long neglected tasks were being addressed. The government believed that a large labour force was needed for reconstruction. Population pressure was not recognised as a problem and there was little thought of population control as a possible policy. This article deals with the family planning policy of the Peoples Republic China.