Main Article Content
Finland educational system is among the top systems in the world and Finnish students have proven themselves as intellects and responsible citizens in the past. In contrast, Pakistan is facing substantial education challenges and despite efforts been made, providing quality education to all children is still a dream. More than half of the adult population is not able to read and write, and there is huge inadequacy of skilled human resource that can impact the economy of the country. Malaysia, like other developed countries, has recognized importance of lifelong learning and is advancing it as a major source for economic growth. Competence, skills needed to ensure holistic growth of students is mentioned explicitly. Besides comprehensive curriculum development, Malaysia introduces such programs as to generate human capital by means of education and training. The creative learning environment and constant encouragement to students is provided to focus on latest skills that are need of the labour market. In Pakistan, it seems curriculum is properly documented with clear aims of what excellences to be fostered in individual but how to foster such excellence is missing.
Ahmed, Iqbal; Rehman, Khalil ur; Ali, Asghar; Khan, Itbar; and Khan, Fazal Akber. (2014). Critical Analysis of the Problems of Education in Pakistan: Possible Solutions. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 3(2), pp. 79-84.
AEPAM. (2016). Pakistan Education Statistics 2014-15. Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management. Retrieved from Library AEPAM. http://library.aepam.edu.pk/Books/Pakistan%20Education%20Statistics%202014-15.pdf.
AEPAM. (2018). Pakistan Education Statistics 2016-2017. Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management. Retrieved from Library AEPAM http://library.aepam.edu.pk/Books/Pakistan%20Education%20Statistics%202016-17.pdf
Bahar, R. (2012, June 10). Critical Analysis of Education Policy of Pakistan 2009 . Retrieved from CSS Forum: http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compulsory-subjects/pakistan-affairs/64288-critical-analysis-education-policy-pakistan-2009-a.html
Buntat, Yahya; Puteh, Nor Azlina; Azeman, Siti Hajar; Nasir, Ahmed Nabil Md; Iahad, Noorminshah; Aziz, Marzilah A. (2013). The Need of Lifelong Learning Towards Learning Community Development in Malaysia. Procedia – Social and Behavrioral Sciences, 93, pp. 1541-1545.
Cheong, Kee-Cheok; Hill, Christopher; and Leong Yin-Ching. (2016). Malaysia’s Education Policies and the Law of Unintended Consequences. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 5(2): 73-85.
de Educación, D. M. (2011). World data on education données mondiales de l’éducation Datos Mundiales de Educación VII Ed. 2010/11.
Finnish National Board of Education. (2020). Learning and Competence 2020: Strategy of the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE). Helsinki: Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE).
Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education. (2009). National Education Policy 2009, (Islamabad: Ministry of Education p.10)
Jamil, Hazri; and Raman, Santhiram R. (2012). Malaysian Educational Policy for National Integration: Contested Terrain of Multiple Aspirations in a Multicultural Nationa. Journal of Language and Culture, 3(1), pp. 20-31.
Lähdemäki, J. (2019). Case Study: The Finnish National Curriculum 2016—A Co-created National Education Policy. In Sustainability, Human Well-Being, and the Future of Education (pp. 397-422). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Matilainen, M. (2011). Finnish education model-pedagogical approach. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
Ministry of Education and Culture. Annual Report 2010, Helsinki, 2009.
Ministry of Education. (2003). National plan of action on education for all (2001–2015) Pakistan. Islamabad, Pakistan: Government of Pakistan.
Ministry of Education. 2008. National report on the development of education. edited by Government of Pakistan. Islamabad, Pakistan.
National Board of Education. (2011b). Learning and Competence 2020. Strategy of the Finnish National Board of Education. Helsinki.
National Education Management Information System, and Academy of Educational Planning and Management. (2011). Pakistan education statistics 2010–11. edited by Ministry of Professional and Technical Training. Islamabad, Pakistan: Government of Pakistan.
QS Top Universities. (2019). QS World University Rankings. Retrieved from QS Top Universities: https://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2019
Rahman, Nor Haslynda A. (2014). From Curriculum Reform to Classroom Practice: An Evaluation of the English Primary Curriculum in Malaysia. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of York, UK.
Schwab, Klaus. (2018). The Global Competitiveness Report 2018: Insight Report. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
UNESCO. (2006). Malaysia. World Data on Education, 6th Edition, 2006/7.
UNESCO. (2012a). World Data on Education: Seventh Edition 2010-2011. Switzerland: International Bureau of Education.
UNESCO. (2012b). UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) Governing Board Fourteenth Ordinary Session. (Montreal, 15-16 November 2012).
UNESCO. (2013). Malaysia: Education Policy Review. Abridged Report, May 2013.
Vazir, N. (2003). Curriculum as practiced in Pakistan. Journal of Educational Research, 6(1-2), 177.
World Bank. (2015). Pakistan – Enterprise Survey 2013. Microdata Library, World Bank. Retrieved from: https://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/2363.