Main Article Content
Asia Pacific, which is extended Eastward to the states of Oceania, Westward to Pakistan, Southward to New Zealand, and Northward to Mongolia, is currently a pivot of the globe due to its economic growth. Since last two decades, it has got status of ‘growth center’ owing to its high economic growth rate. The United States (US) had been very active in Asia Pacific throughout the Cold War period, but in post-Cold War era, it was disengaged due to its pre-occupation in Middle East. However, the rise of China attracted US again with multiple arrangements at political, economic and social fronts. There are two world views about the US presence in Asia Pacific. The first one asserts that the Asia Pacific is more secure without the presence of US, while others takes the US presence as a patron for stability and solidarity within the region. The US policy of ‘Pivot to Asia’, ‘Asia Pacific’ commonly known as ‘Rebalancing’ ensured its new commitment of deep engagement in Southeast Asia. Policy shift under Trump administration from ‘Pivot to Asia’ to ‘Free Indo-Pacific’ has direct as well indirect implications for Pakistan. The study analyses the US strategies and polices under the theory of ‘Offensive Realism,’ where ‘rational powers uncertain of intentions and capable of military offensive strive to survive’. Analytical, descriptive approaches are adopted in order to analyse US ongoing strategies.
Analysis, B. E. (2019). Direct Investment by Country and Industry. Retrieved from https://www.bea.gov/data/intl-trade-investment/direct-investment-country-and-industry
Carter, A. (April 8, 2013). The U.S. Defense Rebalance to Asia. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
(June 25, 2019). China’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States. CRS. Retrieved from https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/RL33534.html
cost, M. A. (2001). America’s Role in Asia. American Diplomacy 6:3. Retrieved from http:// www.americandiplomacy.org./
Dreyer, J. T. ( 1990). Asian-Pacific Regional Security. Washington, D.C.: Washington Press Institute.
Feber, W. L. (1989). The American Ate: United States ForeignPolicy at Home and Abroad Since 1750. New York: W.W. Norton &Company.
Fifield., R. H. (1973). Americans in Southeast Asia: The Roots of Commitment. New York.
Gershman, J. (July/August 2002). Is Southeast Asia the Second Front? pp. 60–74.
Grinter, L. E. (January-February 1983). Avoiding the Burden: The Carter Doctrine in Perspective. Air University Review. Retrieved from http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/
Hagel, S. o., & Chipman, J. (June 01, 2013). Remarks by Secretary Hagel at the IISS Asia Security Summit. Shangri-La Hotel, Singapore: International Institute for Strategic Studies. Retrieved from http://archive.defense.gov/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=5251 , https://www.defense.gov/
ITC. (n.d.). List of products exported by China. https://www.trademap.org/. Retrieved from https://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry_TS.aspx?nvpm=1%7c156%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c2%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1
James McBride and Andrew Chatzky. ( 2019). What Is the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)? Council on Foreign Relation. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-trans-pacific-partnership-tpp
Kerrey, J. R. (July 2001). The United States and Southeast Asia: A Policy Agenda for the New Administration. Report of an Independent Task Force .
L, D. K. (n.d.). U.S. POLICY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, Limited Re-engagement after Years of Benign Neglect. Diane K. Mauzy and Brian L. Job , U.S. POLICY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, Limited Re-engagement after Years of Benign Neglect, Asian Survey, Vol. 47, Issue 4, pp. 622–641. doi: DOI: AS.2007.47.
Lawrence, M. A. (2010). The Vietnam War: A Concise International History. New York: Oxford University Press.
Leifer, M. (2000). Singapore’s Foreign Policy: Coping with Vulnerability. London: Routledge.
(2015). Made in China 2025na . State Council of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved from http://english.gov.cn/2016special/madeinchina2025/
McDevitt, M. (January/February 2007). The 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and National Security Strategy: Is There an American Strategic Vision for East Asia? Issues and Insights 7:1, pp, 1-3.
Mearsheimer, J. (2001). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. W. Norton.
Panetta, L. (September 19, 2012.). Speech to the PLA Engineering Academy of Armed Forces. Leon Panetta, Speech to the PLA Engineering Academy of Armed Forces, September 19, 2012. Retrieved from https://archive.defense.gov/Speeches/Speech.aspx?SpeechID=1723
Presidential Memorandum Regarding Withdrawal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Agreement. (23 January 2017). Whitehouse. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/presidential-memorandum-regarding-withdrawal-united-states-trans-pacific-partnership-negotiations-agreement/
Ramakrishna, B. D. (Spring 2002). Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Expert Analysis, Myopia, and Fantasy. Paciﬁc Review 18:3, p.162.
Remarks by President Obama at the University of Yangon. (November 19, 2012). Rangoon, Burma: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2012/11/19/remarks-president-obama-university-yangon
Remarks by President Trump at APEC CEO Summit. (November 2017). U.S. Embassy Hanoi. Retrieved from https://vn.usembassy.gov/20171110-remarks-president-trump-apec-ceosummit
Sheridan, G. (1997). Tigers: Leaders of the New Asia-Paciﬁc. New South Wales :: Allen & Unwin.
Simon, S. W. (September 1996). Security, Economic Liberation, and Democracy: Asian Elite Perceptions of Post-Cold War Foreign Policy Values,. NBR Analysis 15:2, 26. Retrieved from http://www.nbr.org.
Singh, B. (1999). The Vulnerability of Small States Revisited. Yogyakarta: GadjahMada University Press.
Sprout, H. M. (1967). Rise of American Naval Power. Princeton University Press.
The Truman Doctrine. (1947). Retrieved from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/truman-doctrine
ToluseOlorunnipa, J. S. (January 24, 2017). China eyes opportunity as US pulls out of Trans-Pacific Partnership.
Trask, D. (1996). The Spanish-American War . Hispanic Division Library of Congress.
Trump Abandons Trans-Pacific Partnership, Obama’s Signature Trade Deal. (Jan. 23, 2017). New York Times . Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/23/us/politics/tpp-trump-trade-nafta.html?auth=link-dismiss-google1tap
Wallerstein, I. (2010). “What Cold War in Asia? ". (H. L. Zheng Yangwen, Ed.)
Wang, J. (2012). China's integration with the world: Dvelopment as a Process of Learning and industrial upgradation. China Economic Policy Review, Vol. 01( No. 01). doi:https://doi.org/10.1142/S179396901250001X
Wayne, B. (n.d.). Chinese Policies and U.S. Interests in Southeast Asia. Asian Survey, Vol. 33.
Welsh, J. G. (2013). Breaking the Kill Chain. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/17/breaking-the-kill-chain/
Why ASEAN matters. (March, 2018). East Asia Forum Quarterly, 1-32. Retrieved from http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/n4206/pdf/book.pdf?referer=4206