Main Article Content
Relative decline of the United States, rise of the rest, challenges posed by the non-state actors, proliferating violent crises in different regions, unstoppable environmental degradation, and the unabated growth of the populist tendencies are few of the issues transpiring at the system level. This paper tries to dissect this transformation, while also highlighting that how and why is China trying and willing to take on the leading role in the regional and international milieu. How does China view the world and what is the Chines image of the world order? The study elaborates Neo-Confucianism and Tianxia (All under Heaven) systems in order to enlarge upon the Chinese view of the world.
relations: Origins and evolution of IR at its centenary. Cambridge
Agensky, J. C. (2017). Recognizing religion: Politics, history, and the
‘long 19th century’. European Journal of International Relations,
Allison, G. (2015). The Thucydides trap: Are the US and China headed
for war? The Atlantic, 24.
Allison, G. (2017). Destined for war: Can America and China escape
Thucydides’ trap? Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Baker, P., & Swanson, A. (2018, March 8). Trump authorizes tariffs,
defying allies at home and abroad. New York Times. Retrieved
Barnett, M. (2017). Social constructivism, In J. Baylis, S. Smith, & P.
Owens (Eds.) The globalization of world politics an introduction to
international relations (pp. 144–158). Oxford University Press.
Beeson, M. (2018). Geo-economics with Chinese characteristics: The
BRI and China’s evolving grand strategy, Economic and
Political Studies, 6(3), 240–256.
Bell, D. (2009). The idea of greater Britain: Empire and the future of world
order, 1860-1900. Princeton University Press.
Bell, D. A. (2010). China’s new Confucianism: Politics and everyday life in
a changing society. Princeton University Press.
Benton, G. (2007). Mao Zedong and the Chinese revolution. New York:
Bisley, N. (2010). Global power shift: The decline of the west and the
rise of the test, In M. Beeson & N. Bisley (Eds.). Issues in 21st
century world politics (pp.13-29). Macmillan International
Bull, H. (2012). The anarchical society: A study of order in world politics.
Buzan, B., & Lawson, G. (2015). The global transformation: History,
modernity and the making of international relations. Cambridge
Chan, S. (2017). The Belt and Road Initiative: Implications for China
and East Asian economies. The Copenhagen Journal of Asian
Studies, 35(2), 52–78.
Christensen, T. J. (2006). Fostering stability or creating a monster: The
rise of China and US policy toward East Asia. International
Security, 31(1), 81–126.
Dent, C. M. (2020). Brexit, Trump and trade: Back to a late 19th century
future. Competition & Change, 24(3–4), 338–357.
Deudney, D., & Ikenberry, G. J. (2018). Liberal world: The resilient
order. Foreign Affairs, 97.
Duncombe, C., & Dunne, T. (2018). After liberal world order.
International Affairs, 94(1), 25–42.
Dunn, E. C., & Bobick, M. S. (2014). The empire strikes back: War
without war and occupation without occupation in the
Russian sphere of influence. American Ethnologist, 41(3), 405–
Etzioni, A. (2007). Security first: For a muscular, moral foreign policy. Yale
Hacker, A. (2012). China illustrated Western views of the Middle Kingdom.
Hast, S. (2016). Spheres of influence in international relations: History,
theory and politics. London: Routledge.
Jun, N. (2010). The birth of the People’s Republic of China and the
road to the Korean War, In M. P. Leffler & O. A. Westad (Eds.).
The Cambridge history of the cold war: Origins (pp. 353–375).
Cambridge University Press.
Krauthammer, C. (1990). The unipolar moment. Foreign Affairs, 70(1),
Mearsheimer, J. J. (2001). The Tragedy of great power politics. W. W.
Norton & Company.
Merk, F., & Merk, L. B. (1995). Manifest destiny and mission in American
history: A reinterpretation. Harvard University Press.
Moore, G. J. (2017). Avoiding a Thucydides Trap in Sino-American
relations (… and 7 reasons why that might be difficult), Asian
Security, 13(2), 98–115.
Morrison, W. (2014). China’s economic rise: History, trends,
challenges, and implications for the United States
[Congressional Research Service Report]. US Congress.
Schweller, R. L. (1996). Neorealism’s status‐quo bias: What security
dilemma? Security Studies, 5(3), 90–121.
Shiming, Z. (2006). A historical and jurisprudential analysis of
Suzerain–Vassal State relationships in the Qing Dynasty.
Frontiers of History in China, 1(1), 124–157.
Su, Y. (2011). Collective killings in rural china during the Cultural
Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
Swain, T. (2017). Confucianism in China: An introduction. Bloomsbury
Weitz, R. (2017). Promoting U.S. Indian defense cooperation:
Opportunities and obstacles. Strategic Studies Institute, US
Army War College. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/
Westad, O. A. (2012). Restless empire: China and the world since 1750.
Zakaria, F. (2008). The future of American Power: How America can
survive the rise of the rest. Foreign Affairs, 87(3), 18–43.
Zhang, F. (2010). The Tianxia system: World order in a Chinese
utopia. Global Asia, 4(4), 108–112.
Zhao, S. (2015). Rethinking the Chinese world order: The imperial
cycle and the rise of China. Journal of Contemporary China,
Zhao, T. (2019). Redefining a philosophy for world governance.
Zhao, T. (2018, February 7). Can this ancient Chinese philosophy save
us from global chaos? Washington Post. Retrieved from
Zhao, T. (2009). A political world philosophy in terms of All-underheaven (Tian-xia). Diogenes, 56(1), 5–18.
Zhao, T. (2006). Rethinking empire from a Chinese concept ‘Allunder-Heaven’ (Tian-xia,). Social Identities, 12(1), 29–41.
Zuo, J. (1991). Political religion: The case of the Cultural Revolution
in China. Sociology of Religion, 52(1), 99–110.