SOUTH KOREA’S CULTURAL DIPLOMACY DURING COVID-19 AND IMPACTS OF ONLINE LEARNING: A CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS OF PAKISTANI AND AFRICAN STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS
Main Article Content
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of South Korea’s excellent Information Technology infrastructure on students learning in online classes amid the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was administered on Pakistani and African (N=156) students to investigate their perceptions regarding new paradigm shift towards online learning through correlational and cross-sectional study design. Results show a significant difference between African and Pakistani students on mean scores of teaching mode and learning environment in online classes in the year 2020; t (156) = -5.353, p < .001); indicated an insignificant difference between Pakistani and African Students on mean scores of personal characteristics and factors towards online classes; t (156) =-.716, p-value .095. According to hierarchical regression, the country of the respondents emerged as the strong predictor of attitude towards online teaching that accounted for 16 % of the variance in total attitude towards online teaching, β =.38, t = 5.39, ***p < .001. Personal attributes also emerged as a significant predictor for attitude towards online teaching, β =.30, t = 4.30, ***p < .001 which accounted for 9 % variance in the attitude towards online teaching.
Abrar, M. (2019,December 25). S Korean tourist eager to explore Pakistan: envoy. Pakistan Today, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2019/12/25/diplomatic-corner/
Chou, C. P., &Spangler, J. (2018). (Eds). Cultural and Educational Exchanges between Rival Societies: Cooperation and Competition in an Interdependent World. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Cooper, A. F., Heine, J., &Thakur, R. (2013).(Eds).The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford University Press.
Cull, Nicholas J. (2009). (Ed). Public Diplomacy: Lessons from the Past. Los Angeles: Figueroa Press.Dighe, A., &Riley, S. (2020). Response to COVID-19 in South Korea and implications for lifting stringent intervention. BMC Medicine18, 321. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01791-8.
Education Endowment Foundation (2020). Remote learning: Rapid evidence assessment. EEF.April.https://edtechhub.org/wpcontent/uploads/2020/04/Remote_Learning_Rapid_Evidence_Assessment
Family, H. (2020). Novel Coronavirus Manual. US: HaLaDi Family.
Hughes, J. (2019, January 24). Why international students are so important to their host countries.Retrieved fromhttps://www.academiccourses.com/article/why-international-students-are-so-important-to-their-host-countries/.
Asia Pacific, Research Journal, Volume 39, 202181Jack T. L.(2015). Soft power and cultural diplomacy: emerging education hubs in Asia, Comparative Education, 51:3, 353-374, DOI: 10.1080/03050068.2015.1037551.
Jung, W. (2020, September 30). South Korea-Future hub of international students. CSIS: Centerfor Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/blogs/new-perspectives-asia/south-korea-%E2%80%93-future-hub-international-education.
Kalenzi, C., Back, D., & Yim, M. (2020, November 13). The future of online education: lessons from South Korea. World Economic Forum.
Kirsten, B., Rachel, B., John, H., &Samuel, J. (2007). Cultural Diplomacy. London: IPrint Leicester. Mukhtar, K., Javed, K., Arooj, M., &Sethi, A. (2020). Advantages, limitations, and recommendations for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic era. Journal of Medical Sciences. DOI:10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2785. Osler, S. (2020). Coronavirus: Outbreak, All the Secrets Revealed about the COVID-19 Pandemic. Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies.Retrieved fromhttps://www.uenps.eu/2020/03/25/coronavirus-outbreak-all-the-secrets-revealed-about-the-covid-19-pandemic-sidney-osler/Price,
S. (2020, April 10). Teachers grapple with online classes as South Korea goes back to school.Forbes. Retrieved fromhttps://www.forbes.com/sites/steveprice/2020/04/10/teachers-grapple-with-online-classes-as-south-korea-goes-back-to-school/?sh=1bee70191386
Sarwar, H., Akhtar, H., Naeem, Meshal,M., Khan, J. A., & Waraich, K. (2020). Self-reported effectiveness of e-learning classes during COVID-19 pandemic: A nation-wide survey of Pakistani undergraduate dentistry students. European Journal of Dentistry. DOI.http://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1717000.
Stetar, J., Coppla, C., Guo, L., Nabiyeva, N., & Ismailov, B. (2010). Higher Education, Policy, and Global Competition Phenomenon. DC Washington: Palgrave Macmillan.
Tahira, I. (2020). Collection of Essays on Public Diplomacy: Possibilities and Future Outlook. Korean public diplomacy towards African: Scoping the cooperation and humanitarian aid in the age of COVID-19 crisis. Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.World Meter. (2021, July 5). COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. Retrieved fromhttps://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/.
Vuving, A. L. (2009). How soft power works. Paper presented at Toronto: American Political Science Association annual meeting.
Yonhap News Agency(2020, February, 17). Number of foreign residents in Korea tops 2.5 million. Yonhap News Agency, Retrieved fromhttps://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20200217003000315.1https://www.topuniversities.com/where-to-study/asia/south-korea/guide.Accessed on 2021/01/15