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Ren Guangxu
Faraz Anjum


The development of modern railways has had a profound impact on Chinese cities, especially, in the context of the aggression to modern China. Harbin, once a rural area nearby Songhua River, has been transformed into an international city of modern China, the most significant reason is the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway during 1898-1903. It became the external force that changed Harbin. With the railway's opened, Harbin became the center of commodity trade exchange, while more and more people settled in Harbin. Immigrants who came from different countries and places brought their own culture and customs into Harbin, which impacted Chinese people who lived in Harbin. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway on the cultural diversity of Harbin city from the perspective of railway-induced social change.

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