Main Article Content
The Indian Ocean holds immense vitality for its strategic trade routes and choke points. China and India are Asia’s two rising powers, who aim to dominate the Indian Ocean to satisfy their regional and global ambitions. This competitiveness for regional influence has resulted in geo-strategic competition in the Indian Ocean. China, through the strategy of ‘String of Pearls’, has increased its naval footprint by building ports in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. India has similarly responded with an alternative counterbalancing strategy ‘Necklace of Diamonds’ by deepening its relations and partnership with Iran, Oman, Singapore, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and other regional countries. This qualitative exploratory comparative case study finds that: China through its String of Pearls strategy intends to achieve great power status, boost its economy, and address its security concerns, especially those related with the Malacca Dilemma. India, through its Necklace of Diamonds strategy, is trying to counterbalance Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean. Moreover, India intends to enhance its political and economic clout – being the rising power of the region.
University. Retrieved from https://www.airuniversity.af.edu
/Office-of-Sponsored-Programs/Research/ArticleDisplay/Article/3113633/indias-necklace-of-diamondsstrategy/ (Accessed: November 26, 2022)
Basak, S. (2022, February 2). How Is India’s Access to Oman’s Duqm
Port Linked to China’s Maritime Schemes? The Quint.
Retrieved from https://www.thequint.com/news/india/howindia-access-oman-duqm-port-china-maritime-schemes
(Accessed: November 24, 2022)
Bhaumik, S. (2020). The India-Myanmar Kaladan Project: Vision and
Reality. Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher (TOAEP), Policy
Brief Series No. 106.
Brewster, D. (2010). An Indian Sphere of Influence in the Indian
Ocean? Security Challenges, 6(3), 1–20.
Brewster, D. (2014). Beyond the ‘String of Pearls’: Is there really a
Sino-Indian security dilemma in the Indian Ocean? Journal of
the Indian Ocean Region, 10(2), 133–149. https://doi.org/
Brewster, D. (2018). India and China at Sea: Competition for naval
dominance in the Indian Ocean. Oxford University Press.
Chaudhuri, P. P. (2015, January 10). Churning of the Indian Ocean.
Hindustan Times. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu
es_review_of_Indias_Ocean (Accessed: December 10, 2022)
Collins, G. (2016). China’s Evolving Oil Demand: Slowing Overall
Growth, Gasoline Replacing Diesel as Demand Driver, Refined
Product Exports Rising Substantially. Rice University’s Baker
Institute for Public Policy.
EurAsian Times Desk. (2020, July 15). From Singapore’s Changi
Naval Base to Oman’s Duqm Port, How Is India Countering
Chinese String of Pearls? Retrieved from.
https://eurasiantimes.com/from-singapores-changi-navalbase-to-omans-duqm-port-how-is-india-countering-chinesestring-of-pearls/ (Accessed: October 14, 2022)
Government of India. (2019). Data. Ministry of Statistics and
Programme Implementation. Retrieved from
9-finall.pdf (Accessed: June 06, 2022)
Gupta, P. S. (1987). The Indian Ocean in World Politics: Reflections
On Its Future. India Quarterly, 43(3–4), 195–212.
Gurjar, S. (2022, July 1). Why is India Enhancing its Engagement with
Indonesia and Vietnam? India Narrative. Retrieved from
37346.html (Accessed: September 02, 2022)
India-Sri Lanka ties: Relations improved in 2016, but China’s
influence a cause for concern. (2016, December 23). First Post.
Retrieved from https://www.firstpost.com/world/india-srilanka-ties-relations-improved-in-2016-but-chinas-influencea-cause-for-concern-3170374.html (Accessed: November 11,
Jaishankar, D. (2018). Review of “India and China at Sea: Competition
for Naval Dominance in the Indian Ocean” by David
Brewster. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 40(2), 346–348.
Kaplan, R. D. (2009). Center Stage for the Twenty-first Century:
Power Plays in the Indian Ocean. Foreign Affairs, 88(2), 16–32.
Khalid, I., & Gul, A. (2017). Indian Response to Chinese String of
Pearls Doctrine. Global Political Review, 2(1), 27–35.
Khurana, G. S. (2008). China’s ‘String of Pearls’ in the Indian Ocean
and Its Security Implications. Strategic Analysis, 32(1), 1–39.
KILIÇ, F., & KAYA, T. Ö. (2017). Sino-Indian Strategic Rivalry in the
Indian Ocean Region. Insan ve Toplum, 7(2), 155–172.
Kostecka, D. J. (2011). PLACES AND BASES: The Chinese Navy’s
Emerging Support Network in the Indian Ocean. Naval War
College Review, 64(1), 59–78.
Lanteigne, M. (2008). China’s Maritime Security and the “Malacca
Dilemma”, Asian Security, 4(2), 143–161. https://doi.org/
Macan-Markar, M. (2022, January 28). India gains foothold in Sri
Lanka with Trincomalee oil tank deal. Nikkei Asia. Retrieved
India-gains-foothold-in-Sri-Lanka-with-Trincomalee-oiltank-deal (Accessed: March 22, 2022)
Malik, A. R. (2016). Impact of Gwadar Port on the Economy of
Pakistan under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, In M.
M. Khan, A. R. Malik, S. Ijaz, & U. Farwa China Pakistan
Economic Corridor: A Game Changer (Eds.) Islamabad: The
Institute of Strategic Studies.
Panda, A. (2018, July 17). India Makes Moves at Indonesia’s Strategic
Sabang Port. The Diplomat. Retrieved from
https://thediplomat.com/2018/07/india-makes-moves-atindonesias-strategic-sabang-port/ (Accessed: September 16,
Pant, H. V. (2009). India in the Indian Ocean: Growing Mismatch
Between Ambitions and Capabilities. Pacific Affairs, 82(2), 279–
Paret, P., Craig, G. A., & Gilbert, F. (Eds.). (1986). Makers of Modern
Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton
Ramachandran, S. (2007). China moves into India’s back yard. Asia
Revi, V. (2020). Seychelles and Assumption Island project: Another
test for India. Observer Research Foundation (ORF). Retrieved
(Accessed: March 22, 2022).
Revi, V. (2021). India’s approach towards Seychelles in the Indian
Ocean Region. Observer Research Foundation (ORF).
Retrieved from https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/
indias-approach-towards-seychelles-in-the-indian-oceanregion/ (Accessed: March 20, 2022).
Roy, S. (2018). India gets access to strategic Oman port of Duqm for
military use, Chabahar-Gwadar in sight. Indian Express, 13.
Scott, D. (2006). India’s ‘Grand Strategy’ for the Indian Ocean:
Mahanian Visions. Asia-Pacific Review, 13(2), 97–129.
Shekhar, V. (2020, August 20). The Sabang and Aceh-Andamans
Initiatives: Beyond Base, Access and Balancing. National
Maritime Foundation. Retrieved from
October 11, 2022)
Tariq, S. (2016). Sino-Indian Security Dilemma in the Indian Ocean:
Revisiting the ‘String of Pearls’ Strategy. Regional Studies,
Than, T. M. M. (2003). Myanmar and China: A special relationship?
Southeast Asian Affairs, (1), 189–210.
Vego, M. (2009). Naval classical thinkers and operational art. Naval War
College Newport United States.
WB. (2021). China. World Bank Data. Retrieved from
December 13, 2021).